IDDRS Framework





*Module under revision

DDR and Transitional Justice

*Module under revision


This module on DDR and transitional justice aims to contribute to accountable DDR programmes that are based on more systematic and improved coordination between DDR and transitional justice processes, so as to best support the successful transition from conflict to sustainable peace. It is intended to provide a legal framework, guiding principles and options for policymakers and programme planners who are contributing to strategies that aim to minimize tensions and build on opportunities between transitional justice and DDR.

Coordination between transitional justice and DDR programmes begins with an understanding of how transitional justice and DDR may interact positively in the short-term in ways that, at a minimum, do not hinder their respective objectives of accountability and stability. Coordination between transitional justice and DDR practitioners should, however, aim beyond that. Efforts should be undertaken to constructively connect these two processes in ways that contribute to a stable, just and long-term peace.


DDR and Natural Resources

*Module under revision


This module on natural resources and DDR aims to draw attention to the importance of natural resources 1 throughout the DDR process in conflict and post-conflict settings and to improve UN inter-agency coordination to address risks and opportunities related to natural resources in DDR, including by strengthening national and local capacities. 2 Evidence indicates that at least 40 per cent of internal conflicts over a 60-year period were associated with land and natural resources, and that this link increases the risk of a relapse into conflict in the first five years following the end of hostilities. 3 It is critical that DDR programmes take these linkages into account to avoid exacerbating potential conflicts and minimize negative environmental impacts that can undermine the success of reintegration, as well as to effectively use the available livelihoods opportunities offered through the sustainable use of natural resources.

In particular, the activities of armed forces and groups during conflict often implicate natural resources, which may be used as a means of financing conflict activities. They may also contribute to the outbreak or relapse of violence as a result of real or perceived grievances tied to inequitable benefit sharing, environmental damage from exploitation and land disputes. Environmental and implementation of DDR programmes.

Dealing with the illegal exploitation of natural resources by ex-combatants and associated groups not only requires promotion of alternative livelihoods and degradation, population displacement and the spread of diseases can be exacerbated by mismanagement of natural resources and inadequate design reconciliation, but also the strengthening of the State and local authorities to effectively manage natural resources. When DDR programmes promote good governance practices, transparent policies and community engagement around natural resource issues, they can also simultaneously address conflict drivers and the impacts of conflict on the environment and host communities while supporting sustainable economic and social reintegration opportunities.

This module highlights the need for the international community to translate the recognized linkages between natural resources and conflict and peacebuilding in the design and implementation of DDR programmes. Through enhanced cooperation, coordination and dialogue among relevant stakeholders in DDR and natural resource, the linkages between these interventions can be addressed in a more conscious and deliberate manner that supports DDR and reintegration in the context of wider recovery, peacebuilding and sustainable development. Acknowledging the importance of gender equality in natural resource management, this module also accentuates the importance of addressing gender-specific needs and opportunities in natural resource-related components of DDR programmes.

Finally, this module recognizes that the degree to which natural resources are incorporated into DDR will vary based on the size, resource availability, partners and capacity of a given programme. While some larger programmes may have natural resource management experts available to inform context analyses, assessment processes and subsequent programme design and implementation, other DDR programmes will need to rely primarily on external experts and partners. However, limited natural resource capacities within a DDR programme should not discourage planners and practitioners from capitalizing on the opportunities or guidance available and seek collaboration and possible programme synergies with other partners that can bring in natural resource management expertise. In fact, limited internal capacity should prompt programmes to further engage and build partnerships with the natural resource management community, where possible, to begin to address linkages more deliberately.


DDR and Organized Crime

Coming soon

Module under development

level 1

General IDDRS

level 2

Concepts, Policy and Strategy of the IDDRS

level 3

Structures and Processes

level 4

Operations, Programmes and Support

level 5

Cross-cutting Issues

level 6