DDR and SSR
The purpose of this module is to provide policy makers, operational planners and officers at field level with background information and guidance on related but distinct sets of activities associated with disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) and security sector reform (SSR). The intention is not to set out a blueprint but to build from common principles in order to provide insights that will support the development of synergies as well as preventing harmful contradictions in the design, implementation and sequencing of different elements of DDR and SSR programmes.
DDR and Transitional Justice
This module on DDR and transitional justice aims to contribute to accountable DDR programmes that are based on more systematic and improved coordination between DDR and transitional justice processes, so as to best support the successful transition from conflict to sustainable peace. It is intended to provide a legal framework, guiding principles and options for policymakers and programme planners who are contributing to strategies that aim to minimize tensions and build on opportunities between transitional justice and DDR.
Coordination between transitional justice and DDR programmes begins with an understanding of how transitional justice and DDR may interact positively in the short-term in ways that, at a minimum, do not hinder their respective objectives of accountability and stability. Coordination between transitional justice and DDR practitioners should, however, aim beyond that. Efforts should be undertaken to constructively connect these two processes in ways that contribute to a stable, just and long-term peace.
DDR and Natural Resources
This module on natural resources and DDR aims to draw attention to the importance of natural resources 1 throughout the DDR process in conflict and post-conflict settings and to improve UN inter-agency coordination to address risks and opportunities related to natural resources in DDR, including by strengthening national and local capacities. 2 Evidence indicates that at least 40 per cent of internal conflicts over a 60-year period were associated with land and natural resources, and that this link increases the risk of a relapse into conflict in the first five years following the end of hostilities. 3 It is critical that DDR programmes take these linkages into account to avoid exacerbating potential conflicts and minimize negative environmental impacts that can undermine the success of reintegration, as well as to effectively use the available livelihoods opportunities offered through the sustainable use of natural resources.
In particular, the activities of armed forces and groups during conflict often implicate natural resources, which may be used as a means of financing conflict activities. They may also contribute to the outbreak or relapse of violence as a result of real or perceived grievances tied to inequitable benefit sharing, environmental damage from exploitation and land disputes. Environmental and implementation of DDR programmes.
Dealing with the illegal exploitation of natural resources by ex-combatants and associated groups not only requires promotion of alternative livelihoods and degradation, population displacement and the spread of diseases can be exacerbated by mismanagement of natural resources and inadequate design reconciliation, but also the strengthening of the State and local authorities to effectively manage natural resources. When DDR programmes promote good governance practices, transparent policies and community engagement around natural resource issues, they can also simultaneously address conflict drivers and the impacts of conflict on the environment and host communities while supporting sustainable economic and social reintegration opportunities.
This module highlights the need for the international community to translate the recognized linkages between natural resources and conflict and peacebuilding in the design and implementation of DDR programmes. Through enhanced cooperation, coordination and dialogue among relevant stakeholders in DDR and natural resource, the linkages between these interventions can be addressed in a more conscious and deliberate manner that supports DDR and reintegration in the context of wider recovery, peacebuilding and sustainable development. Acknowledging the importance of gender equality in natural resource management, this module also accentuates the importance of addressing gender-specific needs and opportunities in natural resource-related components of DDR programmes.
Finally, this module recognizes that the degree to which natural resources are incorporated into DDR will vary based on the size, resource availability, partners and capacity of a given programme. While some larger programmes may have natural resource management experts available to inform context analyses, assessment processes and subsequent programme design and implementation, other DDR programmes will need to rely primarily on external experts and partners. However, limited natural resource capacities within a DDR programme should not discourage planners and practitioners from capitalizing on the opportunities or guidance available and seek collaboration and possible programme synergies with other partners that can bring in natural resource management expertise. In fact, limited internal capacity should prompt programmes to further engage and build partnerships with the natural resource management community, where possible, to begin to address linkages more deliberately.
DDR and Organized Crime
Organized crime and conflict converge in several ways, notably in terms of the actors and motives involved, modes of operating and economic opportunities. Conflict settings – marked by weakened social, economic and security institutions; the delegitimization or absence of State authority; shortages of goods and services for local populations; and emerging war economies –provide opportunities for criminal actors to fill these voids. They also offer an opening for illicit activities, including human, drugs and weapons trafficking, to flourish. At the same time, the profits from criminal activities provide conflict parties and individual combatants with economic and often social and political incentives to carry on fighting. For DDR processes to succeed, DDR practitioners should consider these factors.
Dealing with the involvement of ex-combatants and persons associated with armed forces and groups in organized crime not only requires the promotion of alternative livelihoods and reconciliation, but also the strengthening of national and local capacities. When DDR processes promote good governance practices, transparent policies and community engagement to find alternatives to illicit economies, they can simultaneously address conflict drivers and the impacts of conflict on organized crime, while supporting sustainable economic and social opportunities. Building stronger State institutions and civil service systems can contribute to better governance and respect for the rule of law. Civil services can be strengthened not only through training, but also by improving the salaries and living conditions of those working in the system. It is through the concerted efforts and goodwill of these systems, among other players, that the sustainability of DDR efforts can be realized.
This module highlights the need for DDR practitioners to translate the recognized linkages between organized crime, conflict and peacebuilding into the design and implementation of DDR processes. It aims to contribute to age- and gender-sensitive DDR processes that are based on a more systematic understanding of organized crime in conflict and post-conflict settings, so as to best support the successful transition from conflict to sustainable peace. Through enhanced cooperation, mapping and dialogue among relevant stakeholders, the linkages between DDR and organized crime interventions can be addressed in a manner that supports DDR in the context of wider recovery, peacebuilding and sustainable development.
Concepts, Policy and Strategy of the IDDRS
Structures and Processes
Operations, Programmes and Support