Structures and Processes
Integrated DDR Planning: Processes and Structures
Disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) are all complex and sensitively linked processes that demand considerable human and financial resources to plan, implement and monitor. Given the many different actors involved in the various stages of DDR, and the fact that its phases are interdependent, integrated planning, effective coordination and coherent reporting arrangements are essential. Past experiences have highlighted the need for the various actors involved in planning and implementing DDR, and monitoring its impacts, to work together in a complementary way that avoids unnecessary duplication of effort or competition for funds and other resources. This module provides guidelines for improving inter-agency cooperation in the planning of DDR programmes and operations. The module shows how successful implementation can be achieved through an inclusive process of assessment and analysis that provides the basis for the formulation of a comprehensive programme framework and operational plan. This mechanism is known as the ‘planning cycle’, and originates from both the integrated mission planning process (IMPP) and post-conflict United Nations (UN) country team planning mechanisms.
Module under development
DDR Programme Design
Each programme design cycle, including the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) programme design cycle, has three stages: (1) detailed field assessments; (2) detailed programme development and costing of requirements; and (3) development of an implementation plan. Throughout the programme design cycle, it is of the utmost importance to use a flexible approach. While experiencing each stage of the cycle and moving from one stage to the other, it is important to ensure coordination among all the participants and stakeholders involved, especially national stakeholders. A framework that would probably work for integrated DDR programme design is the postconflict needs assessment (PCNA), which ensures consistency between United Nations (UN) and national objectives, while considering differing approaches to DDR.
Before the detailed programme design cycle can even begin, a comprehensive field needs assessment should be carried out, focusing on areas such as the country’s social, economic and political context; possible participants, beneficiaries and partners in the DDR programme; the operational environment; and key priority objectives. This assessment helps to establish important aspects such as positive or negative factors that can affect the outcome of the DDR programme, baseline factors for programme design and identification of institutional capacities for carrying out DDR.
During the second stage of the cycle, key considerations include identifying DDR participants and beneficiaries, as well as performance indicators, such as reintegration opportunities, the security situation, size and organization of the armed forces and groups, socioeconomic baselines, the availability and distribution of weapons, etc. Also, methodologies for data collection together with analysis of assessment results (quantitative, qualitative, mass surveys, etc.) need to be decided.
When developing DDR programme documents, the central content should be informed by strategic objectives and outcomes, key principles of intervention, preconditions and, most importantly, a strategic vision and approach. For example, in determining an overall strategic approach to DDR, the following questions should be asked: (1) How will multiple components of DDR programme design reflect the realities and needs of the situation? (2) How will eligibility criteria for entry in the DDR programme be determined? (3) How will DDR activities be organized into phases and in what order will they take place within the recommended programme timeframe? (4) Which key issues are vital to the implementation of the programme? Defining the overall approach to DDR defines how the DDR programme will, ultimately, be put into operation.
When developing the results and budgeting framework, an important consideration should be ensuring that the programme that is designed complies with the peacekeeping resultsbased budgeting framework, and establishing a sequence of stages for the implementation of the programme.
The final stage of the DDR programme design cycle should include developing planning instruments to aid practitioners (UN, nonUN and government) to implement the activities and strategies that have been planned. When formulating the sequence of stages for the implementation of the programme, particular attention should be paid to coordinated management arrangements, a detailed work plan, timing and methods of implementation.
Participants, Beneficiaries, and Partners
Module under development
National Institutions for DDR
Disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) programmes have increasingly relied on national institutions to ensure their success and sustainability. This module discusses three main issues related to national institutions:
1. mandates and legal frameworks;
2. structures and functions; and
3. coordination with international DDR structures and processes.
The mandates and legal frameworks of national institutions will vary according to the nature of the DDR programme, the approach that is adopted, the division of responsibilities with international partners and the administrative structures found in the country. It is important to ensure that national and international mandates for DDR are clear and coherent, and that a clear division of labour is established. Mandates and basic principles, institutional mechanisms, time-frames and eligibility criteria should be defined in the peace accord, and national authorities should establish the appropriate framework for DDR through legislation, decrees or executive orders.
The structures of national institutions will also vary depending on the political and institutional context in which they are created. They should nevertheless reflect the security, social and economic dimensions of the DDR process in question by including broad representation across a number of government ministries, civil society organizations and the private sector.
In addition, national institutions should adequately function at three different levels:
the policy/strategic level through the establishment of a national commission on DDR;
the planning and technical levels through the creation of a national technical planning and coordination body;
and the implementation/operational level through a joint implementation unit and field/ regional offices.
There will be generally a range of national and international partners engaged in implementation of different components of the national DDR programme.
Coordination with international DDR structures and processes should be also ensured at the policy, planning and operational levels. The success and sustainability of a DDR programme depend on the ability of international expertise to complement and support a nationally led process. A UN strategy in support of DDR should therefore take into account not only the context in which DDR takes place, but also the existing capacity of national and local actors to develop, manage and implement DDR.
Areas of support for national institutions are: institutional capacity development; legal frameworks; policy, planning and implementation; financial management; material and logistic assistance; training for national staff; and community development and empowerment.
Mission and Programme Support for DDR
The base of a well-functioning integrated disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) programme is the strength of its logistic, financial and administrative performance. If the multifunctional support capabilities, both within and outside peacekeeping missions, operate efficiently, then planning and delivery of logistic support to a DDR programme are more effective.
The three central components of DDR logistic requirements include: equipment and services; finance and budgeting; and personnel. Depending on the DDR programme in question, many support services might be necessary in the area of equipment and services, e.g. living and working accommodation, communications, air transport, etc. Details regarding finance and budgeting, and personnel logistics for an integrated DDR unit are described in IDDRS 3.41 and 3.42.
Logistic support in a peacekeeping mission provides a number of options. Within an integrated mission support structure, logistic support is available for civilian staffing, finances and a range of elements such as transportation, medical services and information technology. In a multidimensional operation, DDR is just one of the components requiring specific logistic needs. Some of the other components may include military and civilian headquarters staff and their functions, or military observers and their activities.
When the DDR unit of a mission states its logistic requirements, the delivery of the supplies/services requested all depends on the quality of information provided to logistics planners by DDR managers. Some of the important information DDR managers need to provide to logistics planners well ahead of time are the estimated total number of ex-combatants, broken down by sex, age, disability or illness, parties/groups and locations/sectors. Also, a time-line of the DDR programme is especially helpful.
DDR managers must also be aware of long lead times for acquisition of services and materials, as procurement tends to slow down the process. It is also recommended that a list of priority equipment and services, which can be funded by voluntary contributions, is made. Each category of logistic resources (civilian, commercial, military) has distinct advantages and disadvantages, which are largely dependent upon how hostile the operating environment is and the cost.
Finance and Budgeting
The system of funding of a disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) programme varies according to the different involvement of international actors. When the World Bank (with its Multi-Donor Trustfund) plays a leading role in supporting a national DDR programme, funding is normally provided for all demobilization and reintegration activities, while additional World Bank International Development Association (IDA) loans are also provided. In these instances, funding comes from a single source and is largely guaranteed.
In instances where the United Nations (UN) takes the lead, several sources of funding may be brought together to support a national DDR programme. Funds may include contributions from the peacekeeping assessed budget; core funding from the budgets of UN agencies, funds and programmes; voluntary contributions from donors to a UN-managed trust fund; bilateral support from a Member State to the national programme; and contributions from the World Bank.
In a peacekeeping context, funding may come from some or all of the above funding sources. In this situation, a good understanding of the policies and procedures governing the employment and management of financial support from these different sources is vital to the success of the DDR programme.
Since several international actors are involved, it is important to be aware of important DDR funding requirements, resource mobilization options, funding mechanisms and financial management structures for DDR programming. Within DDR funding requirements, for example, creating an integrated DDR plan, investing heavily in the reintegration phase and increasing accountability by using the results-based budgeting (RBB) process can contribute to the success and long-term sustainability of a DDR programme.
When budgeting for DDR programmes, being aware of the various funding sources available is especially helpful. The peacekeeping assessed budget process, which covers military, personnel and operational costs, is vital to DDR programming within the UN peacekeeping context. Both in and outside the UN system, rapid response funds are available. External sources of funding include voluntary donor contributions, the World Bank PostConflict Fund, the Multi-Country Demobilization and Reintegration Programme (MDRP), government grants and agency in-kind contributions.
Once funds have been committed to DDR programmes, there are different funding mechanisms that can be used and various financial management structures for DDR programmes that can be created. Suitable to an integrated DDR plan is the Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP), which is the normal UN inter-agency planning, coordination and resource mobilization mechanism for the response to a crisis. Transitional appeals, Post-Conflict Needs Assessments (PCNAs) and international donors’ conferences usually involve governments and are applicable to the conflict phase. In the case of RBB, programme budgeting that is defined by clear objectives, indicators of achievement, outputs and influence of external factors helps to make funds more sustainable. Effective financial management structures for DDR programmes are based on a coherent system for ensuring flexible and sustainable financing for DDR activities. Such a coherent structure is guided by, among other factors, a coordinated arrangement for the funding of DDR activities and an agreed framework for joint DDR coordination, monitoring and evaluation.
Personnel and Staffing
Creating an effective disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) unit requires paying careful attention to a set of multidimensional components and principles. The main components of an integrated DDR unit are: political and programme management; overall DDR planning and coordination; monitoring and evaluation; public information and sensitization; administrative and financial management; and setting up and running regional DDR offices. Each of these components has specific requirements for appropriate and welltrained personnel.
As the process of DDR includes numerous cross-cutting issues, personnel in an integrated DDR unit include individuals from varying work sectors and specialities. Therefore, the selection and maintenance of integrated DDR unit personnel, based on a memorandum of understanding (MoU) between the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), is defined by the following principles: joint management of the DDR unit (in this case, management by a peacekeeping mission chief and UNDP chief); secondment of an administrative and finance cell by UNDP; secondment of staff from other United Nations (UN) entities assisted by project support staff to fulfil the range of needs for an integrated DDR unit; and, finally, continuous links with other parts of the peacekeeping mission for the development of a joint DDR planning and programming approach.
Monitoring and Evaluation
Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) has been one of the weakest areas of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) programme management in the past, partly due to a lack of proper planning, a standardized M&E framework, and human and financial resources specifically dedicated to M&E. Past experiences have highlighted the need for more effective M&E in order to develop an effective, efficient and sustainable DDR programme that will achieve the objectives of improving stability and security. M&E is an essential management tool and provides a chance to track progress, improve activities, objectively verify the outcomes and impact of a programme, and learn lessons that can be fed into future programmes and policies. This module outlines standards for improving inter-agency cooperation in designing and conducting effective M&E. It further shows how M&E can be planned and implemented effectively through a creation of a DDRspecific M&E work plan, which consists of a plan for data collection, data analysis and reporting. It also provides some generic M&E indicators within a results-management framework, which can be modified and adapted to each programme and project.
Concepts, Policy and Strategy of the IDDRS
Structures and Processes
Operations, Programmes and Support