SG REPORT ON DDR

SPECIAL EDITION: VOICES FROM THE FIELD

BY DPO-DDR SECTION

 

I. INTRODUCTION

II. UN ENGAGEMENT IN DDR

III. UN APPROACH TO DDR

IV. RECOMMENDATIONS

I. INTRODUCTION

10 Years since the last Report: The Evolution of DDR

10 Years: Why now?

  • The last Secretary-General report on DDR to the General Assembly was issued on 21 March 2011.
  • In 2018, Member States called for an update through the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations (C-34).
  • The C34 then asked the Secretariat to conduct a comprehensive review of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) and report back to the committee.

 

The global landscape of armed conflict has changed

  •  ARMED CONFLICTS have become increasingly protracted and, in many conflict-affected countries, peace agreements are precarious or absent.
  • ARMED GROUPS are increasingly fragmented, continuously proliferating as they identify new objectives, develop new capabilities, and acquire new recruits. Some have links to transnational organized crime and/or terrorism.

UN’s Approach to DDR: Adaptation over Decades

  • Late 1980s – 1990s: DDR was synonymous with DDR programs typically implemented in post-conflict contexts where a peace agreement was signed between a national government and armed groups, and a UN peacekeeping mission was deployed.
  • Late 1990s – early 2000s: UN peacekeeping mandates began to expand, the UN’s approach to DDR also broadened. Rather than focus only on combatants in military structures, DDR began to focus on communities affected by armed violence.
  • 2006: the shift from a DDR program to a Community Violence Reduction (CVR) approach in Haiti triggered a rethink of DDR across the UN.
  • 2010s onwards: DDR no longer perceived as merely an operational and technical exercise contributing to the implementation of peace agreements and widely acknowledged as a process that influences, and is influenced by, political dynamics.

 

Towards a Broader DDR: From 2006 onwards

Although DDR programmes implemented after the peace agreements remain an integral part of peacebuilding…

  • DDR processes are no longer only implemented in Post-Conflict  and du UN Peacekeeping Operation contexts;

  • DDR traverses the entire peace continuum from prevention, conflict resolution and peacekeeping, to peacebuilding and sustainable development;

  • Improved by the cooperation between different bodies through the Inter-Agendy Working Group on DDR.

Towards more Inclusive Programmes: Gender Sensitive DDR

Over the years DDR and CVR  Programmes have become more inclusive by addressing specific needs of women and children

Gender-related language integrated in Security Council mandates on DDR

  • MINUSMA: Security Council Resolution 2531 (2020) stressed the need to account for the particular needs of women and children  when supporting and implementing DDR & CVR programmes.
  • MINUSCA: Security Council Resolution 2448 (2018) advocated for the implementation of a comprehensive strategy that prioritizes the implementation of inclusive, gender-sensitive and effective DDR.

II. UN ENGAGEMENT IN DDR

A Review of the work in the Field and at the Headqurters

DDR IN THE FIELD

DDR Programmes

The UN has continued to support nationally-led DDR programmes implemented after peace agreements.

DDR Related Tools in the Field

Members of the IAWG-DDR have supported DDR-related tools in various contexts

[PUT INFO ON WAM, SAME FORMAT AS IAWG]

Support to Reintergration

When the preconditions for a DDR programme are not in place, support to reintegration can be:

Cross Cutting Issues

Work has focused the reintegration of women and children formerly associated with armed grous and the prevention of youth recruitment

Women

Many DDR efforts have also included an explicit gender component.

Children

Prevention  recruitment and reintegration of children formerly associated with armed groups

Youth

Guided by the Youth, Peace, and Security Agenda, youth has featured prominently in DDR

Over the past five years… at the Headquarters

III. UN APPROACH TO DDR

A New Approach

UN Revised Approach to DDR

What is DDR?

Changes in the contexts in which DDR takes place make it timely to review current definitions

In practice this laverages the UN and DDR Practitioners’ ability to support governments and communities in building a sustainable peace

A New Grammar: Beyond Traditional DDR

  Traditional DDR Programmes are viable when preconditions are in place as:
  Integrated DDR Processes today are multi-stakeholder efforts that go beyond traditional DDR to comprise interlinked combinations of:
  And contribute to the entire peace continum

The New DDR Grammar: Beyond Traditional DDR

Traditional DDR Programmes

Disarmament Demobilization Reintegration

DDR Related Tools

Owning to the changing nature of armed conflict, DDR has become synonymous with a broader cluster of activities

  • Pre-DDR designed for those eligible for a DDR program when its implementation is delayed;
  • WAM • Transitional Weapons and Ammunition Management includes weapons collection and support for the safer management;
  • CVR • Community Violence Reduction a bottom-up approach to eliminate the main drivers of violence by providing alternatives to recruitment and building social cohesion;
  • AGDTO Initiatives prevent individuals from joining armed groups designated as terrorist organizations;
  • Transitional Security Arrangements to support to the establishment of security-related confidence building measures during of ongoing negotiations, ceasefire or peace agreement;
  • Support to Mediation on drafting of DDR provisions in agreements, on inplementing DDR programmes and advice on how to engage with armed groups;

IV. RECOMMENDATIONS

Guidelines and Challanges on the way forward to DDR

Special Political Missions & Non-Mission Settings

Secretary Gerneral encourages Member States to ensure …  

  • Capacity and Resources to address DDR related requests from Special Political Missions and Non-Mission Settings
  • Political attention on DDR until the reintegration of  ex-combatants is sustainably established;

Local, National, Regional Dynamics

Secretary Gerneral urges Member States to…

  • Support the use of CVR and reintegration to contribute to prevent (re-)recruitment.
  • Ensure linkages between the national, local and regional levels, including through the formulation of multi-level strategies and regional DDR mandates.

Integrated DDR Processes


Secretary Gerneral asks Member States to explore…

  • Transitional WAM is streamlined into national DDR efforts, including national CVR and community-based approaches;
  • Ways to strengthen the inkage between short-term CVR, reintegration support and longer-term recovery and development programmes;

Cross-Cutting Issues

 


Secretary Gerneral encourages Member States to bloster…

  • Woman meaningful participation in all stages of DDR processes, with the provision of support to survivors of violence.

  • Youth specific strategies designed and implemented by national authorities;
  • Disabled people participation in inclusive DDR processes in which their specific needs are met.